Alberti KGMM 2009. Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome: A Joint Interim Statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; and International Association for the Study of Obesity.
Circulation 120:1640-1645.

Bermúdez-Cardona J and Velásquez-Rodríguez C 2016. Profile of Free Fatty Acids and Fractions of Phospholipids, Cholesterol Esters and Triglycerides in Serum of Obese Youth with and without Metabolic Syndrome
Nutrients 2016, 8(2), 54

Carr DB et al. 2004. Intra-abdominal fat is a major determinant of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for the metabolic syndrome.
Diabetes 53 (8): 2087-94.

de Ferranti S and Mozaffarian D 2008. The Perfect Storm: Obesity, Adipocyte Dysfunction, and Metabolic Consequences.
Clin Chem 54: 945-955.

Deng Y and Scherer PE 2010. Adipokines as novel biomarkers and regulators of the metabolic syndrome.
Ann N Y Acad Sci 1212:E1-E19.

Ford et al. 2004. Increasing prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among U.S. adults.
Diabetes Care, 27: 10, 2444–2449.

Grundy SM 2008. Metabolic syndrome pandemic.
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 28: 4, 629–636.

Hildrum B et al. 2007. The HUNT study - a longitudinal population health Study in Norway.
BMC Public Health 7:220.  

Hu G et al. 2004. Plasma insulin and cardiovascular mortality in non-diabetic European men and women: a meta-analysis of data from eleven prospective studies.
Diabetologia 47: 1245-56.

Mottillo et al. 2010. The Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Risk.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 56(14):1113-32.

Reaven GM 1988. Banting Lecture 1988. Role of insulin resistance in human disease.
Nutrition. 1997 Jan;13(1):65; discussion 64, 66.

Reaven GM 2005. Why Syndrome X? From Harold Himsworth to the Insulin Resistance Syndrome.

Saad MF 1991. Racial differences in the relation between blood pressure and insulin resistance.
N Eng J Med 324: 733-739.

Smith SR and Wilson PW 2006. Editorial: Free Fatty Acids and Atherosclerosis - Guilty or Innocent?
J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 91:2506–2508.