History of the Metabolic Syndrome

  • In 1947 the French physician Dr. Jean Vague observed, that upper body obesity seems to predispose diabetes, atherosclerosis, gout and calculi.
  • In 1977 the term „Metabolic Syndrome" was used for associations of obesity, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipoproteinemia, and hyperuricemia when describing the additive effects of risk factors on atherosclerosis.
  • In 1988 the endocrinologist Gerald Reaven proposed insulin resistance as the underlying factor and named the constellation of abnormalities Syndrome X. Reaven did not include abdominal obesity as part of the condition.

Nowadays the MetS is widespread in countries with Western lifestyle and estimates indicate that ~ 34% of the population (> 20 yrs) meet the criteria for the MetS .

Causes and Associated Conditions of the Metabolic Syndrome

Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factors

Fixed Risk FactorsModifiable Risk Factors
  • Aging
  • Genetic background
  • Gender
  • Menopause
  • Diabetes
  • Dyslipidemia
  • High alcohol consumption
  • Hypertension
  • Insulin resistance
  • Obesity
  • Low physical activity
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Smoking